Gallic Influences

Celtic Claims

High Kings/179/celtic_empire_map/1760 This view of the pre-Roman “Celtic Empire” is commonplace. It is however challenged by the recent work of archaeologists such as Barry Cunliffe, and a wide range of geneticists.

East and West

High Kings/179/celtic-nations/1759 The genetic evidence is that the tribes known as “Celtoi” by the Greeks may in fact have been many different peoples, who spoke similar languages, an traded goods and artefacts. Thus there may have been at least two major groupings, east and west.

From the Ocean

High Kings/179/facing the ocean/1763 Barry Cunliffe is adamant  that  one subgroup occupied the atlantic coastline from Northern Ireland to North Africa and that it was different from other groups described as Celts.. (For more information on his findings see   -Facts And Opinions – Tutankhamun – Opinions – The Basque Anomaly.


geography The question then is where to draw the line between east and west?  The Treveri, the clan who originally occupied the land where the roman city of Augusta Treverorum was located (Trier) were reported by St Jerome to speak a language similar to that spoked by the Celts in Galatia(Modern Turkey) and the celts in Galacia were certainly “Eastern Celts.” He should have known as he visited both places. the rives are; the Rhine running north/south and the Danube running east /west. In Hispania the rivers are the Duro and the Targus. La Tene and Halstatt are two prominent locations of “Celtic culture” but there are significant differences between the two.

Multicultural Hispania

High Kings/179/Hispania/1766 The romans, and modern historians were very clear that in Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) there were not only Celts but several other racial groupings. Most notable is the grouping described as “Pre- Celtic” which is the only peoples identified as such but did perhaps exist elsewhere.

Hispanic Clans

High Kings/179/ Hispania 2/1769 Even within the main Hispanic racial groupings there were many different clans (or tribes if they were not celtic). These different tribes sometimes worked in concert with each other but more often did not.

Gallic Clans

High Kings/179/ Gaul/1768 There was an equally large number of different clans in Gaul. TheCelts in Hispania, Gaul, Britain, Ireland and the Danube did however all have similar organisational structures. They all accomodated the recognition of “High Kings”, The tyranny of distance ensured however that the High King recognised in Britain would not be recognised in Hispania or on the Danube. This had long term implications for the stability of the Roman Empire, which set it self the task of governing them all.


Accidental empire/178/troy/2138 As an aside, there are legends in Britain of another descendant of Aeneus, Brutus who founded the British state.  The same british legend stipulates that the original name for London was “New Troy”

There is also an academic opinion (including Sir Moses Finley, a professor of ancient history at Cambridge University) that all the Celts had their origins in Troy but that the real Troy was near modern Cambridge in England. This should not be dismissed as fantasy. Sir Moses was a serious historian who attemped to quantify his findings. Much of his work is summarised in “Where Troy Once Stood” by Iman Jacob Wilkens  republished in 2009 by Gopher Publishers

Sir Moses Finley also had had collection of his essays published under the title of “The use and abuse of history”. He said of classical historians

“Classical historians are by long tradition often men who are not in the first instance historians but men trained in language and literature who call themselves classicists. . . and classical philologists, [etc.]. . . . Classicists by definition do not have the habit of thinking about history and historical problems other than those on which they happen to be working, do not, by and large, even read history in a serious way outside the ancient field. Their general historical views . . . are in a sense fixed in their school-days, and those make up their basic assumptions, their subsurface generalizations, from which they  proceed to classify and order events and institutions of the ancient world.”

Thus Roman origins are are by no means certain. By extrapolation from the work of Professor Finley,  it is not impossible that the Romans themselves were a Celtic tribe, something that if true, they steadfastly refused to acknowledge.

The most dangerous woman in the world

The Treasure of Trencavel

List of Characters

Table Of Contents



List of Places

Table of Contents

Pseudo History


Extract from The Prisoner of Foix--Chapter 43 -The EntranceNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley-26th April 1355


'Looks like we are going to see a bit of excitement, John. The Captain tried to get an agreement from the Prince that if there is surf running across the channel to Arcachon we will turn back to Bordeaux, but the Prince would hear none of it. Instead, he has offered to provide insurance for all three ships. If they are damaged or sunk, the owners will be compensated and every sailor who makes the passage will be given a bounty payment. What none of this seems to take into account is that if we sink in rough, fast-flowing waters we might all drown.'

John raised his eyebrows. 'But that is what we are going to do?'

'Yes, despite the fact that surf running accross the entrance is not uncommon and the deep water channel moves continually. In the end, the Prince attacked their captains on their weakest point, their professional pride! He threw down the gauntlet. He offered to take the Sally first through the channel, and to take control during the passage.' He raised his brow. 'We are going into the Bay of Arcachon, come what may! '

Extract from The Eagle of Carcassone -- Chapter 24-- A Real GoddessNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley - 22 July 1355

An hour later John walked with Ximene close to the river along the valley below St Feriole. It was the very essence of a summer’s day. The sun was fierce but in the shadow of the trees, it was cool and fragrant. The trees and shrubs along the riverbank hid their progress, from the Château, from St Feriole.

Eventually they reached a point where John thought it was safe to emerge from cover. To his satisfaction the stream extended into a pool with a sandy beach, shaded by trees. Where the stream entered the pool there was a flat grassy area, almost circular. Behind this, the bulk of two mountain ridges provided a splendid backdrop. He looked around once more ‘Not just a good training ground but a great training ground. If the Greek heroes knew about this they might be tempted to join me, to train with me’

Ximene laughed out loud. He turned to look at her. She had removed her outer clothes and was wearing a white chemise, cut short so that it barely reached her knees. Around her waist, she wore a plaited leather belt, obviously fashioned from the multitude of leather straps to be found in the tackle room.

She ran her hands down over her breasts. ‘When you were unconscious I heard you muttering about gods and goddesses, so  I have decided that from now on, for you, I will be the goddess.’

The Prisoner of FoixVol 1 of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

Aquitaine, an English possession, is in crisis. It is under threat from neighbouring nations and internal dissension.

The Black Prince, King Edward III’s eldest son has been given the task of taking command in Aquitaine.

Suddenly there is an opportunity. Ximene Trencavel is the heiress to the lands of Occitan, to the east of Aquitaine: lands controlled by the Franks. Ximene wants independence, both for herself and for Occitan.

A union between Aquitaine and Occitan would be mutually beneficial. The Black Prince undertakes a secret journey to meet Ximene to negotiate a marriage contract. It is, however, a marriage neither of them really wants.

Meanwhile, the  Franks plot to murder Ximene to prevent ,not just the marriage, but any kind of union between England and Occitan.

The Eagle Of CarcassonneVol II of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

The loose alliance between Ximene Trencavel and the Black Prince is under threat.

The Prince invades Occitan, to show his support for Ximene but it becomes an invasion which creates more problems than it solves.

The Prince has fallen hopelessly in love with Joan of Kent and Joan is now determined to marry him and become the next Queen of England.

Joan is therefore  determined to convince Ximene that she should not marry the Prince.

Part of her strategy is to encourage Ximene’s relationship with John Stanley—one of the Princes bodyguards—not an easy task as both John and Ximene have doubts about their compatibility.

However, John is grievously injured in a battle and Ximene commits herself to nurse him back to health.