Basque Anomaly

If  IGENIA is correct, and that may be a big if, then Tutankhamun was part of the same tribe (haplogroup) as the Basques and the Celts. Even if IGENIA has been mislead the difficulty of the Basque language remains.  The nearest Language to the Basque Language based on language structure and word associations in Anou The language of Japanese Aboriginals.What circumstances could have lead to the eradication of the Basque language in the lands bordering the northern atlantic or alternatively the introduction of the basque language to the lands bordering the Bay of  Biscay and further south?

Long Names

The Berber Branch There is an inherent Hierarchical structure in the “long names” for SNP’s which is completely lost if only the “short” names are used. R1b1c (or V88) the North African or “Berber” mutation is a close relation but a totally separate branch to R1b1a2 (M269) which has been identified as Tutankhamun’s DNA.

If IGENIA is correct, all the European mutations of R1b are subclades of Tutankhamuns R1b1a2.

We do not “know’ where either the R1b1a2 or R1b1c came from, It is possible that both mutations from R1b1 occurred in North Africa though many geneticists favour the Caucusus as the place where the mutation occurred


The peoples of the Atlantic. Some people like graphics others prefer numbers. Look at the R1b column to see how R1b dominates. The key issue is in the Pyrenean counties. Catalonia, Arnagnac, Bearn, Aquitaine, Navarre, Leon and Asturias have all dominant R1b DNA. The emergent state of Occitan fell within this area.Maps showing only the distribution of R1b with all the subclasses gathered under the same heading are interesting but not helpful in plotting movements.

The master sub clade for Western Europe R1b1a2a1a1 (L11) is a the third mutation from the DNA possessed by Tutankhamun. R1b1a2a1 (L150) and R1b1a2a1a (L51) precede it.

It is uncertain wether these mutations and L11 itself occurred in Europe or somewhere else. The favoured location for all three is being Anatolia /Armenia. Anatolia is the ancient name for modern Turkey and the home of one of the most famous cities of all time… Troy.

Twin Mutations

Separate Mutations The selection of Anotolia as the location of these most important mutations is based on significant populations of the relevant mutations prevailing through to the present day. Using the same criteria of a lingering presence, L11 then spread (migrated?) in two different ways, firstly to the Pyrenees (Basque country) and secondly and quite separately overland to the Swiss/German borders.  The U 106 mutation occurred from basic L11 stock in either The Basque Region or what is now Hungary.

Western Mutations

04-three-parallel-mutations-028 In the basque country L11 then mutated into S116. there were three separate mutations from S116; Z196 which expanded into Spain and North Africa. U152 in Southern France /Northern Italy and M 259 in Ireland

In Central Europe L11 mutated into U106, this was a totally separate mutation but that fact can only be seen by examination of the long names.

The U 106 mutation occurred from basic L11 stock in either The Basque Region or what is now Hungary.

The Celtic Heritage

amy In the British Isles either L11, S116, U152  or U106 mutated into the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) which until recently was described only by current observable STR’ s.  The AMH is apparently now being defined it terms of SNP mutations, in work not yet published. This work will reveal which of the possible preceeding Haplogroups it descended from.

In terms of the Tutankhamun argument the descendacy does not matter but for historians of the Celtic peoples it is vitally important. It could help settle the argument of wether the Celts colonised Europe spreading out from the Atlantic shores or wether they invaded the British Isles from Central Europe.

The Irish M529 is from a quite different branch of the tree than the dominant Atlantic Coastal haplotype which is more common in Brittany, Cornwall and Wales.

in the East

r1a Just to complete the picture, further East on the European Peninsula there was a concentration of R1a, giving a tantalising clue that R1 itself must have its origins further to the east.

In summary; The DNA structure shows that the mutation possessed by Tutenkhamun and his immediate ancestors was earlier than the mutations on the Atlantic coast. Peoples must have moved from east to west. We do not know why and it seems likely they took two totally separate routes. It is probable but not certain that U152, thrusting inland from the atlantic coast gave rise to the ” la Tene’ civilisation whereas the U106 derived from the overland migration gave rise to the “Hallstadt” civilisation. This could suggest two groups of “Celts” in Europe who just happened to be lumped together under the same name.

Facing the Ocean

Facing-the-ocean These theories create enormous difficulties for historians of all types. The Basques and early Vascones (Gascons, Armagnacs etc) did not even speak an Indo-European language, which nearly everyone else in Europe , including those called “Celts”, did.

Barry Cunliffe (Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe), is an eminent archeologist. In his book “Facing the Ocean” he identifies the people of the Atlantic seaboard as a unique people. In his view, a view based originally on archaeological work, they were independent and clearly differentiated from their inland neighbours.

He proposes that the was a unified Atlantic culture which was concurrent with and not subsequent to either the Halstatt or La Tene cultures, which thrived in Switzerland and Southern Germany. Incidentally these Mid European cultures were not necessarily centred on either Halstatt or La Tene. These are simply the most famous sites which indicated the existence of these cultures.

The Atlantic Peoples

The Celtic Sea

The domain of the Atlantic peoples stretched from the Orkneys to North Africa. The Atlantic peoples included the Basques, and Tartessians and possibly the Iberians and Berbers none of whom spoke Indo- European Languages.For Barry Cunliffe the fact that they are believed to have spoken an Indo Eurpopean language, the ancester of Gaelic, from early times, is a problem.

He sees them as a totally separate people and would have expected them to speak a different language. He proposes that they adopted the Indo European language as a necessity to support their trading activities, in much the same way that English is used throughout much of the world in the twenty-first century.

In other words the Atlantic peoples Originally spoke a non Indo- European language, probably Basque although Barry Cunliffe does not actually as that. Barry Cunliffe came to his conclusions before the most recent DNA studies ( p295 Facing the Ocean 2001) It is interesting that the DNA studies seem to be confirming his instincts.

View from Space

View from the Atlantic The view from space,over the Atlantic gives quite a different perspective on the Mediterranean from normal projections. Notice how Italy and Greece slope East West . In this view they cease to be a barrier but almost a guide towards the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. It also gives a different impression of the Iberian Peninsula. It looks bulky and so it is.  Ninety percent of the peninsula’s land mass is high plain serrated by rivers and mountains.


From Where? There seems general agreement that before the peoples carrying the R1b mutations settled in the Pyrenees they passed through passed through Anatolia (modern Turkey) but few have speculated on Egypt as a still earlier location.

Consensus ( that word again) is that it the location for earlier mutations would have been in the Caucasus ( Northern Iran, Armenia), This belief is problematical as the R1a mutation is reputed to have started in exact same location. R1a and R1b however travelled down completely different routes . Now we have this minuscule sample from Egypt. Does it mean anything or nothing?

In the absence of extra information, however. the speculation comes to a grinding halt.

It raises the question however what happened further East?

The most dangerous woman in the world

The Treasure of Trencavel

List of Characters

Table Of Contents



List of Places

Table of Contents

Pseudo History


Extract from The Prisoner of Foix--Chapter 43 -The EntranceNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley-26th April 1355


'Looks like we are going to see a bit of excitement, John. The Captain tried to get an agreement from the Prince that if there is surf running across the channel to Arcachon we will turn back to Bordeaux, but the Prince would hear none of it. Instead, he has offered to provide insurance for all three ships. If they are damaged or sunk, the owners will be compensated and every sailor who makes the passage will be given a bounty payment. What none of this seems to take into account is that if we sink in rough, fast-flowing waters we might all drown.'

John raised his eyebrows. 'But that is what we are going to do?'

'Yes, despite the fact that surf running accross the entrance is not uncommon and the deep water channel moves continually. In the end, the Prince attacked their captains on their weakest point, their professional pride! He threw down the gauntlet. He offered to take the Sally first through the channel, and to take control during the passage.' He raised his brow. 'We are going into the Bay of Arcachon, come what may! '

Extract from The Eagle of Carcassone -- Chapter 24-- A Real GoddessNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley - 22 July 1355

An hour later John walked with Ximene close to the river along the valley below St Feriole. It was the very essence of a summer’s day. The sun was fierce but in the shadow of the trees, it was cool and fragrant. The trees and shrubs along the riverbank hid their progress, from the Château, from St Feriole.

Eventually they reached a point where John thought it was safe to emerge from cover. To his satisfaction the stream extended into a pool with a sandy beach, shaded by trees. Where the stream entered the pool there was a flat grassy area, almost circular. Behind this, the bulk of two mountain ridges provided a splendid backdrop. He looked around once more ‘Not just a good training ground but a great training ground. If the Greek heroes knew about this they might be tempted to join me, to train with me’

Ximene laughed out loud. He turned to look at her. She had removed her outer clothes and was wearing a white chemise, cut short so that it barely reached her knees. Around her waist, she wore a plaited leather belt, obviously fashioned from the multitude of leather straps to be found in the tackle room.

She ran her hands down over her breasts. ‘When you were unconscious I heard you muttering about gods and goddesses, so  I have decided that from now on, for you, I will be the goddess.’

The Prisoner of FoixVol 1 of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

Aquitaine, an English possession, is in crisis. It is under threat from neighbouring nations and internal dissension.

The Black Prince, King Edward III’s eldest son has been given the task of taking command in Aquitaine.

Suddenly there is an opportunity. Ximene Trencavel is the heiress to the lands of Occitan, to the east of Aquitaine: lands controlled by the Franks. Ximene wants independence, both for herself and for Occitan.

A union between Aquitaine and Occitan would be mutually beneficial. The Black Prince undertakes a secret journey to meet Ximene to negotiate a marriage contract. It is, however, a marriage neither of them really wants.

Meanwhile, the  Franks plot to murder Ximene to prevent ,not just the marriage, but any kind of union between England and Occitan.

The Eagle Of CarcassonneVol II of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

The loose alliance between Ximene Trencavel and the Black Prince is under threat.

The Prince invades Occitan, to show his support for Ximene but it becomes an invasion which creates more problems than it solves.

The Prince has fallen hopelessly in love with Joan of Kent and Joan is now determined to marry him and become the next Queen of England.

Joan is therefore  determined to convince Ximene that she should not marry the Prince.

Part of her strategy is to encourage Ximene’s relationship with John Stanley—one of the Princes bodyguards—not an easy task as both John and Ximene have doubts about their compatibility.

However, John is grievously injured in a battle and Ximene commits herself to nurse him back to health.