Dropping sea levelsAs temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America's using extensive land bridges. It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.As the temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America’s using extensive land bridges. It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.
Q and RThe the more usual version of the spread of mutations Q and R. is that it took place on the roof of the world, the Himalayas, at a time when the whole area was submerged in ice. The majority of those carrying the Q mutation eventually found their way to the America’s via the Bearing Straights and R fled from the advancing ice into the Indus and Sarasvati River valleys. This solution does not fully explain the total dominance of R far to the west.
An Alternative SolutionAlternatively Mutation to Q took place much nearer to the route to the America’s
The mutation from P to R can only have occurred in one individual in one place.
The only place with residual R, with no mutations, is the Indus so R must have reached there.
The most promising solution is that mutation to R took place in one of a myriad of islands in the South arabian sea. It is possible that this event includes Madagascar. It seems strange that the popularly accepted history of Madagascar seems to be that there was no human occupation until 2500 BP.
IndiantisMultiple eruptions could have caused a Volcanic Winter in the area at the same time the seas were rising. I have called the islands, invaded by the twin curse of rising seas and volcanic eruptions, Indiantis.
There are five volcanoes or volcanic fields on Madagascar , one of which, Nosy Be, is a small subsidiary island eight kilometers off the coast of the main island. All these volcanoes were active at about the same time, around 8000 years ago which coincides with the highest rate of rise of sea level at the end of the ice age. There seems to be no speculation on what might have happened on the island earlier than this. Elsewhere in the southern Arabian sea there are other volcanic islands. If there were large numbers of people living in the area some emergency action could well have been necessary. I have called the islands, invaded by the twin curse of rising seas and volcanic eruptions, Indiantis.
The Flight from Indiantis
R mutated to R1 and then when conditions became intolerable the whole R1 population moved. They may have had to search for the ideal location but it would not be surprising that they chose the three great river valleys surrounding the Arabian Sea. The Nile, The Indus and The Tigris/Euphrates.
R1 to R1b in EgyptAncient Egypt was not confined to the Nile valley and estuary. Right from the beginning they possessed land on the shores of the Red Sea, On the islands in the Red Sea and even on the Arabian Mainland. The nile valley was occupied mainly by Haplagroup J and group R1 did not displace them. They mutated to become R1b and became the rulers of Egypt assuming the status of Gods. They then went on to colonise much of the Eastern Mediterranean.
If this speculation is correct there is no surprise that Tutankhamun is R1b. As time passed the mutations continued, perhaps faster than in any other Haplogroup.
R1 to R1a in Mesopotamia.Meanwhile another group carrying R1 moved to the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates, Mesopotamia Babylon , Elam and Assyria and ultimately Persia. This group mutated into R1a and evolving quite separately another extended set of sub clades.
R1 To R1c?? in the IndusThe remaining group of R1 moved to the Indus Valley where they found a population of R2 who had mutated seperately and independantly from the Himalayan R. This group either merged with or ruled over the R2’s. This civilisation ultimately failed, possibly because of eruptions in the Himalaya’s which changed the courses of rivers on which they depended. They dispersed in both directions, into Persia and India.
Due to research carried out in 2011, R2’s can now be clearly identified, but there is at the moment there is no sign of an R1c mutation. Perhaps it is only a matter of time before R1c’s will be located in Persia, Afganistan, Pakistan or India.
Interestingly this is the only place in the world where Haplagroup R, has survived without mutation.