Out of Africa

Y-DNA Hierachy To return to the Haplogroup hierarchy. We are only initially only talking about males and their genetic ancestry.


Neanderthals About 50,000 years ago there were Humanoid creatures (Neanderthals, Homus Erectus and other species) before the emergence of Homo Sapiens

It is popularly assumed that Neanderthals became extinct by a mixture of the onset of the Ice Age or the aggressive attitudes of Homo Sapiens. They were considered to become extinct 40,000 years ago but recent work indicates that some of their DNA found it’s way into modern man. This challenges the date of their supposed extinction.

Interestingly the papers making these assertions make no mention of where in the human DNA these traces can be found.

Out of Africa

Out of Africa All males in the twenty-first century have the vast majority of our genetic structure identical to Haplogroup A, it is what makes us human. Most of us then carry mutations and B, the first identifiable mutation, is almost but not quite universal. There are still traces of Haplogroup A, without the B mutation in Northern Africa. The haplagroup B mutation seems to have created an ability to tolerate further mutations and these have since occurred frequently through history.

After B there is a major sub division those who carry mutation C,D,E,E3b( a later discovery which could not be accommodated with a prime letter) and F. It is quite possible that the genetics council will decide to rename E3b To F in which case F will become G. New discoveries cause constant renaming.

The key point about this is that those carrying mutation F do not carry mutation C or D, they are “different”.

This pattern is repeated for every mutation right through to the present day so we know that the both Tutankhamun and the peoples of the Atlantic are all descended from group K.

Because the sub clades of F, (G, H,I,J and K) are all different, it means we “know” that the Celtic Gene came from first R,and before that P and before that K then through F back to E.All the mutations leave “traces” of where they have been and by mapping where the traces can be found, a picture of the movements of segments of the human race can be established.

It must be stressed that the conclusions from these mapping exercises are all based on statistics and therefore probability. Every single conclusion should be prefixed by “there is a high probability that”

Geneticists and others who use their work to support various points continually point to the Caucuses as the source of “Western Man”.

It matches with concepts of where the first grain was grown and the spread of agriculture. If compared with all the available genetic information it is not a definitive solution.

The first group of Homo Sapiens who came out of Africa to challenge the supremacy of the earlier humanoids were members of Haplogroup F. Examination of the distribution of the Haplagroups indicates that homo sapiens must have initially moved to the south east. Eurasia and Asia is where they left behind traces of their existence.

From this mapping of the movement of peoples is mapped by using information on where the various mutations are concentrated, it can be seen that the movement through the Caucusus is relative recent. Long before that group F moved east and subdivided.

Fragmentation of group F

Mutations from F Group K, one of the mutations of Group F only occurs in the East and in Oceania. The only exception to this is the presence of extremely small percentages in Persia.

Group K and the succeeding group O covered the Japanese islands which is of immediate interest in view of the similarities between Basque and the ancient aboriginal japanese Laguage, Ainu.

Fragmentation of Group K

Mutations from K People with the mutation called Haplogroup L must have moved back west. we know this as there is a significant prescence of L in India and Arabia. Those with with the mutation called Haplogroup P must also have moved west. They must have taken a different route as although there is residual P in Persia there is none in India.

The onset of the ice

The time of the westward  migration of L and P was 30,000 to 35,000 years before the present, just about the time of the last Ice Age ( I should really call it “Period of Maximum Glaciation”)   The initial route  for P must have been open for only a short period as people were driven south by the Ice.

The ultimate western dominance of R a successor to P makes it likely that there was another route giving better access to the lands to the west and not threatened by the onset of the ice.

Dropping sea levels

Low Sea Levels As temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America's using extensive land bridges. It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.As the temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America’s using extensive land bridges.

Q and R

Q Goes further east,R returns westward The the more usual version of the spread of mutations Q and R. is that it took place on the roof of the world, the Himalayas, at a time when the whole area was submerged in ice.  The majority of those carrying the Q mutation eventually found their way to the America’s via the Bearing Straights and R fled from the advancing ice into the Indus and Sarasvati  River valleys. This solution does not fully explain the total dominance of R far to the west.

An Alternative Solution

Out of Africa The mutation from P to R can only have occurred in one individual in one place.The only place with residual R, with no mutations, is the Indus so R must have reached there.

It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.

The most promising solution is that mutation to R took place in one of a myriad of islands in the South arabian sea. It is possible that this event includes Madagascar. It seems strange that the popularly accepted history of Madagascar seems to be that there was no human occupation until 2500 BP.

The most dangerous woman in the world

The Treasure of Trencavel

List of Characters

Table Of Contents



List of Places

Table of Contents

Pseudo History


Extract from The Prisoner of Foix--Chapter 43 -The EntranceNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley-26th April 1355


'Looks like we are going to see a bit of excitement, John. The Captain tried to get an agreement from the Prince that if there is surf running across the channel to Arcachon we will turn back to Bordeaux, but the Prince would hear none of it. Instead, he has offered to provide insurance for all three ships. If they are damaged or sunk, the owners will be compensated and every sailor who makes the passage will be given a bounty payment. What none of this seems to take into account is that if we sink in rough, fast-flowing waters we might all drown.'

John raised his eyebrows. 'But that is what we are going to do?'

'Yes, despite the fact that surf running accross the entrance is not uncommon and the deep water channel moves continually. In the end, the Prince attacked their captains on their weakest point, their professional pride! He threw down the gauntlet. He offered to take the Sally first through the channel, and to take control during the passage.' He raised his brow. 'We are going into the Bay of Arcachon, come what may! '

Extract from The Eagle of Carcassone -- Chapter 24-- A Real GoddessNo need to buy a Kindle. Read it on your computer or tablet

John Stanley - 22 July 1355

An hour later John walked with Ximene close to the river along the valley below St Feriole. It was the very essence of a summer’s day. The sun was fierce but in the shadow of the trees, it was cool and fragrant. The trees and shrubs along the riverbank hid their progress, from the Château, from St Feriole.

Eventually they reached a point where John thought it was safe to emerge from cover. To his satisfaction the stream extended into a pool with a sandy beach, shaded by trees. Where the stream entered the pool there was a flat grassy area, almost circular. Behind this, the bulk of two mountain ridges provided a splendid backdrop. He looked around once more ‘Not just a good training ground but a great training ground. If the Greek heroes knew about this they might be tempted to join me, to train with me’

Ximene laughed out loud. He turned to look at her. She had removed her outer clothes and was wearing a white chemise, cut short so that it barely reached her knees. Around her waist, she wore a plaited leather belt, obviously fashioned from the multitude of leather straps to be found in the tackle room.

She ran her hands down over her breasts. ‘When you were unconscious I heard you muttering about gods and goddesses, so  I have decided that from now on, for you, I will be the goddess.’

The Prisoner of FoixVol 1 of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

Aquitaine, an English possession, is in crisis. It is under threat from neighbouring nations and internal dissension.

The Black Prince, King Edward III’s eldest son has been given the task of taking command in Aquitaine.

Suddenly there is an opportunity. Ximene Trencavel is the heiress to the lands of Occitan, to the east of Aquitaine: lands controlled by the Franks. Ximene wants independence, both for herself and for Occitan.

A union between Aquitaine and Occitan would be mutually beneficial. The Black Prince undertakes a secret journey to meet Ximene to negotiate a marriage contract. It is, however, a marriage neither of them really wants.

Meanwhile, the  Franks plot to murder Ximene to prevent ,not just the marriage, but any kind of union between England and Occitan.

The Eagle Of CarcassonneVol II of the series—The Treasure of Trencavel

The loose alliance between Ximene Trencavel and the Black Prince is under threat.

The Prince invades Occitan, to show his support for Ximene but it becomes an invasion which creates more problems than it solves.

The Prince has fallen hopelessly in love with Joan of Kent and Joan is now determined to marry him and become the next Queen of England.

Joan is therefore  determined to convince Ximene that she should not marry the Prince.

Part of her strategy is to encourage Ximene’s relationship with John Stanley—one of the Princes bodyguards—not an easy task as both John and Ximene have doubts about their compatibility.

However, John is grievously injured in a battle and Ximene commits herself to nurse him back to health.