Out of Africa

Y-DNA Hierachy To return to the Haplogroup hierarchy. We are only initially only talking about males and their genetic ancestry.


Neanderthals About 50,000 years ago there were Humanoid creatures (Neanderthals, Homus Erectus and other species) before the emergence of Homo Sapiens

It is popularly assumed that Neanderthals became extinct by a mixture of the onset of the Ice Age or the aggressive attitudes of Homo Sapiens. They were considered to become extinct 40,000 years ago but recent work indicates that some of their DNA found it’s way into modern man. This challenges the date of their supposed extinction.

Interestingly the papers making these assertions make no mention of where in the human DNA these traces can be found.

Out of Africa

Out of Africa All males in the twenty-first century have the vast majority of our genetic structure identical to Haplogroup A, it is what makes us human. Most of us then carry mutations and B, the first identifiable mutation, is almost but not quite universal. There are still traces of Haplogroup A, without the B mutation in Northern Africa. The haplagroup B mutation seems to have created an ability to tolerate further mutations and these have since occurred frequently through history.

After B there is a major sub division those who carry mutation C,D,E,E3b( a later discovery which could not be accommodated with a prime letter) and F. It is quite possible that the genetics council will decide to rename E3b To F in which case F will become G. New discoveries cause constant renaming.

The key point about this is that those carrying mutation F do not carry mutation C or D, they are “different”.

This pattern is repeated for every mutation right through to the present day so we know that the both Tutankhamun and the peoples of the Atlantic are all descended from group K.

Because the sub clades of F, (G, H,I,J and K) are all different, it means we “know” that the Celtic Gene came from first R,and before that P and before that K then through F back to E.All the mutations leave “traces” of where they have been and by mapping where the traces can be found, a picture of the movements of segments of the human race can be established.

It must be stressed that the conclusions from these mapping exercises are all based on statistics and therefore probability. Every single conclusion should be prefixed by “there is a high probability that”

Geneticists and others who use their work to support various points continually point to the Caucuses as the source of “Western Man”.

It matches with concepts of where the first grain was grown and the spread of agriculture. If compared with all the available genetic information it is not a definitive solution.

The first group of Homo Sapiens who came out of Africa to challenge the supremacy of the earlier humanoids were members of Haplogroup F. Examination of the distribution of the Haplagroups indicates that homo sapiens must have initially moved to the south east. Eurasia and Asia is where they left behind traces of their existence.

From this mapping of the movement of peoples is mapped by using information on where the various mutations are concentrated, it can be seen that the movement through the Caucusus is relative recent. Long before that group F moved east and subdivided.

Fragmentation of group F

Mutations from F Group K, one of the mutations of Group F only occurs in the East and in Oceania. The only exception to this is the presence of extremely small percentages in Persia.

Group K and the succeeding group O covered the Japanese islands which is of immediate interest in view of the similarities between Basque and the ancient aboriginal japanese Laguage, Ainu.

Fragmentation of Group K

Mutations from K People with the mutation called Haplogroup L must have moved back west. we know this as there is a significant prescence of L in India and Arabia. Those with with the mutation called Haplogroup P must also have moved west. They must have taken a different route as although there is residual P in Persia there is none in India.

The onset of the ice

The time of the westward  migration of L and P was 30,000 to 35,000 years before the present, just about the time of the last Ice Age ( I should really call it “Period of Maximum Glaciation”)   The initial route  for P must have been open for only a short period as people were driven south by the Ice.

The ultimate western dominance of R a successor to P makes it likely that there was another route giving better access to the lands to the west and not threatened by the onset of the ice.

Dropping sea levels

Low Sea Levels As temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America's using extensive land bridges. It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.As the temperature dropped vast amounts of water were locked up in the ice sheets. Sea Levels fell to 140 Metres below current levels. Peoples of haplo groups K and O spread across the Pacific and M and Q reached the America’s using extensive land bridges.

Q and R

Q Goes further east,R returns westward The the more usual version of the spread of mutations Q and R. is that it took place on the roof of the world, the Himalayas, at a time when the whole area was submerged in ice.  The majority of those carrying the Q mutation eventually found their way to the America’s via the Bearing Straights and R fled from the advancing ice into the Indus and Sarasvati  River valleys. This solution does not fully explain the total dominance of R far to the west.

An Alternative Solution

Out of Africa The mutation from P to R can only have occurred in one individual in one place.The only place with residual R, with no mutations, is the Indus so R must have reached there.

It is possible that a second route for Halagroup P was through Oceania and into the Southern Arabian Sea.

The most promising solution is that mutation to R took place in one of a myriad of islands in the South arabian sea. It is possible that this event includes Madagascar. It seems strange that the popularly accepted history of Madagascar seems to be that there was no human occupation until 2500 BP.

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